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abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices.The committee considered an eight-bit code, since eight bits (octets) would allow two four-bit patterns to efficiently encode two digits with binary-coded decimal.However, it would require all data transmission to send eight bits when seven could suffice.2 (ITA2) standard of 1924, The committee debated the possibility of a shift function (like in ITA2), which would allow more than 64 codes to be represented by a six-bit code.In a shifted code, some character codes determine choices between options for the following character codes.ASCII reserves the first 32 codes (numbers 0–31 decimal) for control characters: codes originally intended not to represent printable information, but rather to control devices (such as printers) that make use of ASCII, or to provide meta-information about data streams such as those stored on magnetic tape.For example, character 10 represents the "line feed" function (which causes a printer to advance its paper), and character 8 represents "backspace".
The first edition of the standard was published in 1963, Compared to earlier telegraph codes, the proposed Bell code and ASCII were both ordered for more convenient sorting (i.e., alphabetization) of lists, and added features for devices other than teleprinters.
In some printers, the high bit was used to enable Italics printing.
The code itself was patterned so that most control codes were together and all graphic codes were together, for ease of identification.
The The control codes felt essential for data transmission were the start of message (SOM), end of address (EOA), end of message (EOM), end of transmission (EOT), "who are you? " (RU), a reserved device control (DC0), synchronous idle (SYNC), and acknowledge (ACK).
These were positioned to maximize the Hamming distance between their bit patterns.
The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) was developed under the auspices of a committee of the American Standards Association (ASA), called the X3 committee, by its X3.2 (later X3L2) subcommittee, and later by that subcommittee's X3.2.4 working group (now INCITS).